Donor Language * (English name of the language from which the item has been borrowed; when in doubt, please add the Ethnologue code or indicate the area where the language is spoken)
Recipient Language * (English name of the language into which the item has been borrowed; when in doubt, please add the Ethnologue code or indicate the area where the language is spoken)
Example: raw / othographic format (Orthographic or unsegmented version; you may give a context)
Example: transliterated and segmented * (segmented version; preferably in phonological translation, you can use IPA or Unicode; please use spaces, not tabstops) (type there, copy & paste)
Example: glossing * (glossing parallel to above version; please use spaces, not tabstops)
Example: translation * (translation of the example into English)
Remarks (borrowing pattern)
Any comments or additional information?
If you use glossing abbreviations not in
this list, please explain them here. Are there any
grammatical peculiarities concerning borrowed verbs in this pair of languages?
Exclusiveness / Productivity * Is
this pattern / method the only way the recipient language accomodates
borrowed verbs (from this donor and in general) ? How productive is
If there are other patterns, please submit examples separately.
Transitivity of borrowed verb
* intransitive transitive n/a
Approx. date of borrowing
~~~ please select one from below ~~~ recent before 1900 before 1500 ancient unknown
Lexical status of loan verb The borrowed verb is ...
... a completely new concept (insertion)
... a synonym to an already existing verb (synonym)
... replacing an already existing verb (replacement)
Language contact information * (What is the status of the recipient language?)
~~~ please select one from below ~~~ substrate to colonial language superstrate colonial language geographical neighbour occasional contact (trade etc.) bilingual individual substrate to areal lingua franca superstrate areal lingua franca substrate migrant language science and technology, geek talk secret language, ludling substrate to areal official language superstrate areal language forced bilingualism multilingual society diglossia language attrition religion, mission, cult cultural prestige domain-specific (other) unknown
Remarks (contact situation) (Any more detailed or more fitting characterization of the contact situation, if needed)
Donor language lexeme * (What is the basic (citation) form of the borrowed lexeme in the donor language?)
Donor language lexeme meaning * (What is the English translation of above form?)
Transitivity of the verb in the donor language * (if applicable)
bibliographical hints, comments, anything else you would like to add? Other remarks
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